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september
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What could China learn from Dutch water management?

The Netherlands has a long history in water management. Many Dutch citizens use the opportunity to actively express their opinions on water management. The birth of such public participation systems can be traced back to the thirteenth century. Public participation (PP) is regarded as the core element for successful construction of the projects and is defined as a process in which people are allowed to influence the outcome of plans and working processes. More recently, PP refers to a range of procedures that involve the public and/or stakeholders in the preparation of plans and decision making. In China, however, people cannot present their ideas to the government in effective ways.